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Dr Timothy Carroll | Dr Nicholas Lackenby | Ms Jenia Gorbanenko – Orthodox Christian Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Dr Timothy Carroll | Dr Nicholas Lackenby | Ms Jenia Gorbanenko – Orthodox Christian Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Orthodox Christians often use tactile gestures during acts of religious devotion. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, such gestures had the potential to increase the spread of the virus. Dr Timothy Carroll, Dr Nicholas Lackenby and Ms Jenia Gorbanenko at University College London undertook an ethnographic study focused on how Orthodox Christian communities responded to public health advice that conflicted with their long-standing sacred practices.

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Shane Urban | The Critical Intervention Screen: Improving Safety in the Transport of Trauma Patients

Shane Urban | The Critical Intervention Screen: Improving Safety in the Transport of Trauma Patients

Lights and sirens on ambulances are used in emergencies to accelerate the transport of critical patients to hospital but unfortunately, can increase the risk of motor vehicle collisions. Emergency medical service personnel are those most commonly injured during these collisions and the general public account for the majority of fatalities. Shane Urban at UC Health University of Colorado Hospital, USA, set out to develop a novel, prehospital triage tool that can determine when best to use lights and sirens during the transport of trauma patients.

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Dr Diane Barber | Dysregulated Intracellular pH can Enable Different Diseases

Dr Diane Barber | Dysregulated Intracellular pH can Enable Different Diseases

The pH inside our cells is constantly changing, but also carefully controlled within certain limits. Dynamic intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for normal cell behaviours, but when it becomes dysregulated, it can enable an array of diseases from cancer to Alzheimer’s. Dr Diane Barber from the University of California San Francisco has carried out extensive research into how normal pHi dynamics regulate cell behaviours and the impact that dysregulated pHi can have in different diseases.

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Dr Beate Aurich | Identifying, Understanding and Managing Treatment-related Risks of Medicines Prescribed to Children

Dr Beate Aurich | Identifying, Understanding and Managing Treatment-related Risks of Medicines Prescribed to Children

The relatively new field of paediatric pharmacovigilance aims to improve the clinical care of children by understanding and appropriately managing the risks of medicines administered to this group of patients. Dr Beate Aurich is an established expert in this field, and with colleagues, has published an article on the practical aspects of paediatric pharmacovigilance. She notes that the assessment of the benefit-risk balance of available treatment options should be based on multidisciplinary efforts and include both children and their families.

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Dr Rogier Hopstaken | A Simple Point-of-care Test to Help Combat Antibiotic Resistance

Dr Rogier Hopstaken | A Simple Point-of-care Test to Help Combat Antibiotic Resistance

As the strains of bacteria that are not killed by antibiotics proliferate, increasing numbers of people are at risk of severe illness and even death. Dr Rogier Hopstaken from Star-shl Diagnostic Centres in the Netherlands has shown that a simple, yet effective technique may be the answer to antibiotic over-prescription. A C-reactive protein test at primary points of care can indicate whether a patient with a respiratory tract infection has a severe (bacterial) infection and thus, whether antibiotics are required. This test may be our best tool yet to help combat antibiotic resistance in primary care.

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Dr Panicos Shangaris | Optimising the Prenatal Treatment of Inherited Diseases

Dr Panicos Shangaris | Optimising the Prenatal Treatment of Inherited Diseases

The greatest challenge for ageing populations is that vaccines can be less protective for the elderly due to the age-related decline of the immune system. This means that improving the efficacy of vaccines in the ageing population is crucial to public health. Dr Lei Jin and colleagues from the University of Florida set out to develop a novel strategy to directly address this key issue.

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Dr Lei Jin | Improving Vaccine Protection for the Elderly

Dr Lei Jin | Improving Vaccine Protection for the Elderly

The greatest challenge for ageing populations is that vaccines can be less protective for the elderly due to the age-related decline of the immune system. This means that improving the efficacy of vaccines in the ageing population is crucial to public health. Dr Lei Jin and colleagues from the University of Florida set out to develop a novel strategy to directly address this key issue.

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Dr Yu-Ling Ma | The Power of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cardiac Care

Dr Yu-Ling Ma | The Power of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cardiac Care

Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used in the treatment of disease for centuries, although its potency is often overlooked by researchers. Dr Yu-Ling Ma and colleagues in the Oxford Chinese Medicine Research Centre at the University of Oxford have focused on a multi-component herbal medicine called Xin Su Ning in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia to elucidate the mechanism of action and pharmacological properties of its components.

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A Critical Role for Linguistics in Malaria Control

A Critical Role for Linguistics in Malaria Control

The introduction of new research or technologies for public health into a community is often challenging since complex scientific concepts coupled with jargon can cause disengagement and mistrust, whilst language barriers and cultural differences can complicate things further. Target Malaria is a not-for-profit research consortium that aims to develop and share new, cost-effective and sustainable genetic technologies to modify mosquitoes and reduce malaria transmission. Stakeholder engagement is one of Target Malaria’s three pillars. Researchers at Target Malaria co-developed with local communities a common glossary to improve engagement on new genetic approaches for malaria control in Burkina Faso, Mali and Uganda.

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Dr Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen | Measuring our Motivation for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour

Dr Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen | Measuring our Motivation for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour

Our daily lives involve periods fluctuating between physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but few studies have researched what motivates us to take on these states from one moment to another. Dr Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen at Yale-New Haven Hospital and Columbia University in the USA, has analysed research from a range of scientific fields to assess the role of urges, cravings, wants and desires on our motivation for physical activity, exercise and sedentarism. He has developed a model to explain how these factors interact, as well as a tool to measure the subjective feeling of these states.

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Dr Richard Hayes | Bringing an End to the HIV Epidemic Through Universal Testing and Treatment

Dr Richard Hayes | Bringing an End to the HIV Epidemic Through Universal Testing and Treatment

Worldwide, an estimated 38 million people are living with HIV. Many are still unaware of their status and so are not linked to care and treatment which can prevent them from passing HIV onto their partners and infants and keep them healthy. Dr Richard Hayes from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the UK has led the HIV Prevention Trials Network’s 071 (PopART) trial over the past ten years. This dedicated international collaboration of experts has successfully demonstrated how universal testing and treatment can reduce new HIV infections in Zambia, South Africa and beyond.

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Professor Arthur Grollman | Kidney Disease and Urinary Tract Cancer: How a Traditional Medicinal Plant Causes Serious Health Issues

Professor Arthur Grollman | Kidney Disease and Urinary Tract Cancer: How a Traditional Medicinal Plant Causes Serious Health Issues

This is a recounting of a scientific investigation into a mysterious but potentially deadly disease that first came to light principally in the Balkan states, and then several Asian countries. It manifests itself first as a nephropathy resulting in the destruction of kidney tissue often followed by a cancer of the upper urothelial tract. Professors Arthur Grollman and Francis Johnson at Stony Brook University have achieved a revolutionary understanding of the molecular biology, epidemiology and root cause of both diseases. Their findings have critical implications for medical and scientific communities, as well as the general public.

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